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L. K. VAUGHAN ALMOND HULLING AND SEPARATING MACHINE Filed Nov, 5, 1923v ,4 Sheets-Sheet 2 v IN V EN TOR.- LaLLiS K". T/LLL .www
A TTORNEY Dec; 8, 1925.
L. K. VAUGHAN ALHOND HULLING AND SEPARATING MACHINE 4 Sheets-Shut 3 Filed Nov. 3. 1923 n INVEN TOR.
A T T ORNEY Dec. 8.1925- '1,564,914
' L. K. VAUGHAN ALMOND HULLING AND SEPARATING MACHINE Filed Nov. 3, 1923 4 Sheets--Shelz 4 INVENTOR. lf/oui@ K. T/ul, haz? BY@ m ATTORNEY Patented Dec. 8, 1925.
UNITED sTaTES LOUIS K'. VAUGHAN, OF WOODLAND, CALIFRNIA.
ALMOND HULLING AND SEPARATING Application led November 3, 1923. Serial No. 672,455.
To all whom, t may concern.'
Be it known that I, vLours K. VAUGHAN, a citizen of the United States, residing-at lVoodland, county of Yolo, State of California, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Almond Hulling and Separating Machines; and I do declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the same, reference being had tothe accompanying drawings, and'to the characters of reference marked thereon, whichy form a part of this application.
This invention relates to improvements in almond hulling, separating, cleaning, and cracking machines, and is particularly an improvement over my Patent No. 1,294,852, granted me on the 18th day of February, 1919.
In the present invention, the main hulling, or cracking of the nuts, as the case may be, is done by a mechanism operating on the same principle as in the machine shown in said patent, but `of a more efficient nature and with a wider rangeY of adjustability, due to various improvements in construction.
Additional screening means over what is shown in the previous device have also been added to the present machine to insureV a morejthorough treatment of the almonds.
A drum and beater mechanism, to treatalmonds not hulled by the initial or main hulling device is also provided,'the nuts to be hulled in said drum being fed thereto from the additional screening or separating means above mentioned.
I have also provided an air-current producing means arranged to act on the hulled nuts to remove therefrom all foreign matter lighter than said nuts, so that the latter will be delivered to the final sorting table in an absolutely clean condition.
Means are also provided for separating and saving any kernels which, when the machine is adjusted for hulling operations only, are very liable to become mixed with the hulls and other refuse. Y
,These and other advantages evident hereinafter, are accomplished by means of such structure and relative arrangement of parts as will fully appear by a perusal of the following specification and claims.
In the drawings similar characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in the several views:
Fig. 1 is a side view of the machine.
Fig. 2 is a top plan'view of the same.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section, certain` parts being omitted to better emphasize the remainder. Y -Fig 4 is a transverse sectionon the line 4 4 of Fig. 1. y
Fig. 5 is a l-ongitudinal section of the vacuum-cleaning box.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary section of an adjustable screening structure.
Fig. 7 is an enlarged view of the upper screen-cover adjustment mechanism. A v
Fig. 8 is a cross section of the sorting and adjacent belts or conveyors.
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary detail of a drumscreen mounting.v f
Referring now more particularly to the characters of reference on the drawings, the numeral 1 denotes the supporting frame'- work of the machine, of suitable dimensions for the purpose.l i
i Mounted on top of the frame at one end is a hopper 2 which discharges onto a hulllies above a lower screening structure desig nated generally 'at 4, which slopes in the opposite direction to the structure 3 and under the same.
The structure 3 comprises a box-like member having sides 5 and a solid bottomplate 6, the latter termina-ting in a discharge chute 7' at the lower end thereof. The structure 3 is movable longitudinally of ,the framework 1, the walls 5 resting on rollers 8 mounted on the frame, while guide beams 9 fixed on said fra-me serve to prevent vertical movement ofthe structure 3. Said struc-y ture is reciprocated through a suitable' distance by means of an arm 10 pivoted thereon and eccentrically connected to a driven shaft 11 jonrnaled on the frame 1. f
Positioned between the bars `9 vbut independent thereof is a solid cover member 12 suspended from flexible members 13 wrapped around independent shafts 14 journaled at longitudinally spaced intervals in the frame 1 above and transversely of said cover. To each shaft is attached a lever or handle 15 whereby the shaft may be turned.
rlhe lever has a slotted link 16 extending to the adjacent frame member, a clamping bolt or screw 17 passing through said frame member and link whereby to enable the latter, and consequently the lever and shaft, to be held in any desired position. (See Fig. 7.)
The cover 12 is therefore free to rise, the suspension members 13 being iiexible, but its lowering is controlled by movement of the various levers. V
To prevent undue freedom of upward movement of the cover, springs 18 are provided, these springs being in the form of coils surrounding` the shafts 14, one end of each spring bearing against the cover and the other being attached to the end of a horizontally adjustable bolt 19 mounted in a cross beam 1a of the frame 1, above the cover.
In this manner, the tension on the cover may be kept the same irrespective of the position of the latter relative to the bars 9,
or the tension may be varied according to different requirements in operation.
Fixed on the underside of the cover and extending for the full length thereof are transversely disposed and longitudinally spaced ribs or projections 20, set at right angles to the cover, and preferably formed from angle or channel irons secured on said cover.
Mounted in the walls 5 and extending lengthwise thereof in transversely disposed order are grate bars 21, preferably round rods of about /S diameter with the same spacing therebetween, these bars being` disposed a certain distance below the ribs 20, which distance is of course varied by adjusting the cover.
Positioned between the walls 5 below the grate bars but independent of said walls are longitudinal bars 22 forming supports for transversely disposed and upwardly projecting ribs 23, preferably formed of angle irons suitably spaced. This structure I term a` brush mechanism, for a reason hereinafter evident.
The bars 22 are stationary relative to the walls 5 and grate bars therein, and are mounted on transverse rods 24 secured in the frame 1 at certain points, these rods passing through slots 25 formed in lugs 22a projecting downwardly from the bars 22, the slots being disposed at an angle to a longitudinal horizontal plane. It will therefore be seen that if the bars 22 are moved longitudinally, they will at the same time be raisedor lowered, altering the distance between the ribs 23 and grate bars 21.
Such movement is imparted to this strueture at will by any suitable means, such as for instance a turnable screw 26 flexibly connected at one end to one endr of the brush structure and threaded through a member 27 mounted on the framework 1.
The screening structure 4 comprises side walls 28 supported on rollers 29 ournaled on the frame l at convenient intervals. A plate 30, open at the lower end of the structure, forms the bottom thereof.
Extending lengthwise of the walls 28 a certain distance below the top edges thereof is a coarse-mesh screen 31 which discharges into a chute 32 at the lower end of the struc ture. A certain distance under the screen 31 is an adjustable screening structure comprising transversely disposed and longitudinally spaced plates 33 bent in the form of very narrow channels with their sides horizontally disposed and secured in common to bars 34 adjacent the walls 28 and secured thereto. Telescoped or dovetailed into the members 33 are similar but oppositely disposed plates 35, mounted in common on bars 36 slidably supported on blocks 37 secured to the walls Longitudinal adjustment of the bars 36 is had by suitable means as for instance a screw 38 threaded through the upper end of the structure 4 andattached toy said bars. thus moving the bars, it will be seen that the spacing between the members 35 and adjacent members 34 may be altered at will.
The chute 32 discharges into the hopper 40 of an elevator 41 which in turn discharges into a hopper 42 leading to the interior of a drum 43 enclosed by walls 44 mounted on the frame 1 at the rear end thereof, which is the end opposite the main hopper 2.
This drum comprises end spiders 45 turnably mounted on a shaft 46 journaled inthe walls 44, and extending transversely of the machine. The spider-arms, preferably six in number, have oppositely disposed grooved members 47 at their outeil ends (see Fig. 9) forming supports for iiat removable screencovered frames 48, of which there are also six, and which thus form of the drum a hexagonally shaped structure, the screenframes being symmetrically disposed relative to the shaft.
The spider at the hopper end of the drum has shorter arms than that at the other end, so that the screen frames, when positioned under the shaft, have a downward slant from the hopper end to the opposite end of the drum as shown in Fig. 3, said opposite end discharging into a chute 49 formed with the walls 44, which chute in turn discharges onto a refuse belt or other form of conveyor 50 extending parallel to the machine on the outside of the framework 1. i
Fixed on the shaft 46 is a plurality` of discs 51 supporting beater members consisting of angleplates 52 projecting at intervals at right angles to the discs and parallel to the shaft.
rlhe shaft is driven by any suitable means, and the drum vrotated in common therewith but at a slower speed, by means of a pinion 53 fixed on the shaft which meshes with a gear 54 journaled on the adjacent wall. Mounted in common with the Vgear 54 is a pinion 55 meshing with a pinion 56 attached to the adjacent one of the spiders; (see Fig. 3) the proportions of the gears being preferably such that a speed ratio of 12 to 1 between the shaft and drum will be had.
The lower end of the drum enclosure is all communicating with each other at their upper ends (see Fig. 5).
The elevator 58 discharges into chamber 60, intermediate the top and bottom thereof,
said chamber having at its lower end anl opening 64, adjustable vas to size, and `delivering onto a picking or sorting table consisting of a slowly driven belt 65, moving in a direction away from the opening 64.
The lower end of the chamber 61, next to chamber 60, is connected to the intake of a centrifugal fan 66 of suitable character, the
discharge flue 67 of which preferably eX-v tends parallel to the'refuse belt 50.
The next chamber hasV an opening at its lower end discharging onto the conveyor 5 0. said openingbeing normally closed by a flap door 68 hinged along its upper. edge.
Thefinal chamber 63 has an opening 69 at its lower end, which discharges onto a chute 70 extending over the conveyor 50.
Between the chambers 6() and 61, and 63 and 62, are independent valves or gates 71, controlled from outside the structure 59 by handles 72.
Between the chambers 61 and 62, and 63 and 62, at their upper and communicating ends, are curved deflector or baie plates 7 3, set back to back and terminating at their lower ends above the chamber 62.
By means of this suction bog; structure,
. thefan when driven will draw air either the force of this suction .being regulatedkso that only matter of a certain weight will be` raised in the chambers 6,0 and 63, anything hfgavier thereof.
Anything relatively lightinsuch matter by reasonv of thetendency to vacuum within,
henthe weight offt'he Aaccumulated ,matter 1n chamber 62, pressing against the door, overcomes the air pressure, vthe door will' open, allowing enough Acf the matter to drop l I,
then, as will evident, is automatically charging.
Vmain hyulling structur empties intoy the hopper 74 of an elevator 7 5 which ydischarges ontoV the upper and coarse-meshscreen 7.6 of
a shaker 77 sert on aV slopeV and suspended from springs 78 andreciprocatedby means yof a rod or bar 79 eccentrically drivenfrofin a shaft 80.i i c The'screen .discharges into a chute 81 at the lower end of theshaker which in turn discharges into the chutey 49;.
Below thescreen 6 is,V fine mesh screen 82 which discharges into a chute 83` which in turn discharges into a hopper 84 project# ing from'the side ofthe chamber 68.0f the suction boX 59 v`and leadingto, said chamber.
A bottom plate 85 is provided 'in the shaker 77 under' the flower screen, said'plate emptying into chute 81. i v
' Arranged in connection with the sorting belt 65, preferably onthe same level but back ofthe same is. anarower refuse-carrying beltor conveyor 86 arranged to move in the opposite direction to said sorting beltand discharging at its head end into a chute 87 which delivers onto thel main refuse conveyor 50. 'l Positioned in the same vertical plane as the belt 86 and a suitable distance'thereabove is another conveyor 88, arranged to travel in the saine direction as the main belt 65,` and discharging at its head end intoa chute 89, which empties -into thehopper 40 of the elevator 41 which leads to the beater drum.
All the belts, conveyors,` elevators and v shafts. are driven in! common from a' Single source of power and hence are all-'coupled up 1ny suitable` driving relation so vthat the .desired speed ratios willbe obtained. 4Izhave sh'wn'onithe drawings one manner inwhich ,falling down/.to the exit lOpenings" The discharge chute7 of the upper or f this driving relation may be had, but since it is capable of considerable variation within' the skill oi' any good designer or mechanic, I do not feel it necessary to describe or go into any detail as to this feature.
The'operation of the apparatus is as ollows: The almonds to be hulled, usually including a quantity of leaves, twigs, loose hulls, etc., are dumped into the hopper 2, from which they will drop onto the grate bars 2l. Due to the downward slope ot the structure 3 and its reciprocating movement, the material will gradually pass under the bars orribs 20 and work toward the lower endof the structure. The grate bars mov ing while thc bars 2O are stationary, a rubbing action is exerted on the unhulled nuts which Causes the hulls to be loosened and the majority, if not all of the nuts to leave the hulls. Owing to the adjustability and positive control of setting of the cover 12, the grate and cover bars may be set just close enough to work on unhulled nuts, leaving the huglled nuts to move along the grate without being touched by the cover bars. Owing to the narrow space between the grate and cover bars, the almonds are spread out in a thin sheet, and each nut is worked on independently.
A. certain number of the hulls, besides all small sized matter, including any meats or kernels, will pass between the grate bars and onto the screen.
Should anyv of this matter, especially twigs and hulls, tend vto stick between the bars, the stationary brush-bars 23 act to dislodge such matter, thus preventing choking up of the grate. Since the brush-bar structure is `vertically adjustable, the brushes may be brought as close to the grate yas may be necessary for the most efficient workunder diierent conditions. y
The material passing through the grate bars and falling onto the plateG may, as previously stated, contain some kernels, and it is to save any such that the upper shaker 77 isiprovi'de'd. The material on the plate 6 gradually work'to the discharge 7 from which it is carried by elevator 7 5 to the upper screen 76 oi shaker .77. This screen allows the kernels to pass therethrough but retains larger matter, which passes into chute 8l and thence through chute 49. and onto the refuse belt 50. The kernels and smaller matter drop onto the lower lshaker screen 82, which retains the kernels but passes j anything vsmaller therethrough and onto plate 85, from which said smaller matter passes into chute 8l.
The kernels pass into they suction box i chamber 63 through chute 83 and hopper 84.
In said chamber the kernels are acted on by the 'air blast to clean them of dust and any particles clinging thereto, and they then pass out through the chamber yopening 69 to be deposited in any desired receptacle.
The hulled and unhulled nuts, on the grate bars, and any hulls not passing therethrough, iinally discharge onto the upper screen 3l of the lower structure 4. The mesh of this screen is of a size to retain the unhulled nuts and larger matter, while allowing the hulled nuts to pass therethrough and onto the members 33-35, which in turn permit smaller matter to pass therethrough and onto the plate 30. Such matter will` finally pass through the opening at the .lower end o1c the plate, where it may be gathered in a suitable receptacle to be emptied into the hopper 2 and from there passed to shaker 77, should it be surmised that such matter contains a quantity or' kernels worth saving.
The unhulled nuts, etc., remaining on the upper screen 31 pass therefrom into the chute 32 from which they are carried by elevator 4l to the drum 43, there to be treated yby the beater members 52. discs on which to mount said beatersprevents too rapid a travel of the nuts from one end of the drum, giving the nuts more time to be acted on by the beaters. Nuts, etc., falling through the drum-screens pass onto the screen 3l, to undergo separation as previously described. I
Any matter remaining in the drum passes out through the endv of the same intothe chute 49 and thence onto the refuse belt 50.
The hulled nuts, and any foreign matter on the adjustable screening structure 33-35 are inally deposited in chute 39 from which they are conveyed by the elevator 58 to the chamber 60 of the suction box. There, in the manner previously described, the material lighter than the nuts is either drawn intov the fan to be discharged through the flue 77 thereof, or is kdeflected `into the deadair chamber G2.
rlhe nuts thei'nselves, now perfectly clean, roll onto the main sorting belt 65, alongside which one or more sorters are stationed.
Any obvious refuse is deposited by them on the belt 86, which discharges onto the refuse belt 50.
Should there be however, anyunhulled nuts on the picking belt, these are placed on the belt 88, which delivers them to the elevator 41, to be returned to the drum` and re-treated therein as well as subsequently.
The mits remaining on the picking' belt pass to the rear end thereof and are discharged into sacks or other suitable recel tacles.
Should the machine be used for cracking nuts already hulled, the bars 20 and 2l lare set closelyl enough together to cause the cracking tobe done, and such other adjustments as changing the screen sizes, etc., are
The use of y madeV throughout the machine to enable'the same to handle the relatively smaller'sized material. j i
From the foregoing description 1t will be readily seen that I have produced suchV av not formr af departure from the spirit of the invention, las defined by the appended claims. j
Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and useful and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. In an almond huller, a longitudinally' reciprocating grate structure, a stationary cover mounted above the grate, bars proj ecting from the under side of the cover and disposed transversely of the grate, in spaced relation thereto, adjustable means supporting the cover spaced from the grate, spring means forcing said cover toward the grate but allowing movement of the cover away from the grate and means for adjusting the tension of the springs irrespective of the cover adjustment means.
2. In an almond huller, a longitudinally reciprocating grate structure, comprising transversely disposed bars spaced to allow hulls and the like to pass edgewise therebetween, and a stationary brush structure under the grate, said structure comprising narrow bars disposed parallel to the grate bars, and at an angle thereto.
3. In an almond huller, a longitudinally reciprocating grate structure1 comprising tranf-verselyv disposedbars spaced to allow hulls and the like to pass edgewise therebetween, and astationary brush structure under the orate, said structure comprising bars disposed parallel to the grate bars, and at an angle thereto, and means for adjust.- ing the spacing of said brush bars from the grate as a single unit.
4.-. In an almond huller, a longitudinally reciprocating grate structure, comprising transversely disposed bars spaced to allow hulls and the like to pass edgewise therebetween, a stationary brush structure disposed under the grate bars, a frame on which said brush structure is mounted,and means for adj Listing the spacing of the frame from the grate.
5. In an almond huller, a longitudinally reciprocating grate structure, comprising transversely disposed bars spaced to allow hulls and thelike to pass edgewise therebetween, a stationary brush structure disposed under the grate bars, la frame -on which said brush structure is mounted, stationary rods projecting transversely under said'iframe longitudinally spaced intervals, ,said rods passing through slots'pro'- vided in the frameand extending at an y angle thereto, and'` means for moving said frame longitudinally.
6. In an almond screening apparatus, an
i adjustable screening structure comprising lined horizontal plates transversely disposed and' set in spaced andl parallel relation, and similar plates disposedadjacent vsaid tired plates and arranged for horizontal sliding movement rela-tive thereto. A
7. An almond hulling and Vseparating apparatus comprising a main hulling structureV n having upper and lower surfaces to reta-in the'hulled nuts and smaller matter respectively, a screening structure under the hulling structure comprising vertically spaced screens, the upper one of which receives the material from the 'upper surface' of the huller and the lower one retains matter passing through the upper screen; an auxiliary hulling device, and means for passing the matter from the upper screen to the auxiliary hulling device, the matter on the lower screen being sent to be cleaned and sorted.
8. An almond hulling and separating apparatus comprising a main hullingstruc-ture having upper and lower surfaces to reta-in the hulled nuts and smaller matter respectively, a screening structure under the hulling structure co-mprising vertically spaced screens, the upper one Aof which receives the `material from the upper surface of the huller and the lower one retains matter passing through the upper screen; an auxiliary hulling device, and means for passing the matter from the upper screen to the auxili-y ary hulling device, and air cleaning means arranged to acton the matter from the lower screen to separate the hulled nuts from any other matter.
9. An almond hulling Vand separating apparatus comprising a main hulling structure having vupper and lower surfaces to retain the hulled nuts and smaller matter respectively, a screening structure under 'the 'hulling structure comprising vertically spaced screens, the upper one y of which receives the material from the upper surface ofthe huller and the lower one retains matter passing through the upper screen; van auxiliary hulling device, and means for passing the matter from the upper screen to the auxiliary hulling device, an air-suction cleaning structure to which the matter on the lower screen passes to remove foreign matter from the hulled nuts, and a sorting 'belt onto which said nuts pass from the cleaner.
los y 10. An almond hulling and separatingapi tively, a screening structure under the hull-v ing structure comprising vertically spaced screens, the upper one of which receives the material from the upper surface of the huller and the lower one retains matter passing through the upper screen; an auxiliary hulling device, to which the matter from the upper screen is passed, the lower screen containing the hulled nuts, a shaker structure into which the matter on the lower surface of the main hulling device is deposited, and means in said shaker for segregating any kernels from accompanying foreign matter.
11. An almond hulling and separating apparatus comprisingra main hulling structure having upper and lower surfaces to retain the hulled nuts and smaller matter respectively, a screening structure under the hulling structure comprising` vertically spaced screens, the upper one of which receives the material from the upper surface 0I" the 20 ary hulling device, the matter on the lower 25 screen being sent to be cleaned and sorted, means whereby any nuts hulled in the auxiliary device will loe returned onto said upperscreen, and a refuse belt onto which any material of larger area than the hulled nuts 30 and remaining in said auxiliary device will be deposited.
In testimony whereof I aX my signature.
LOUIS K. VAUGHAN.